8 Stages of Genocide

Genocide is the intent to systematically eliminate a cultural, ethnic, linguistic, national, racial or religious group. The United Nations Genocide Convention defines it as "acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group". Well-known examples of genocide include the Holocaust, the
Armenian Genocide, the 1971 Bangladesh genocide, the Cambodian genocide, and more recently the Kurdish Genocide, the Bosnian Genocide and the Genocide against Tutsi.

1. CLASSIFICATION

All cultures have categories to distinguish people into “us and them” by ethnicity, race, religion, or nationality : German and Jew, Hutu and Tutsi Bipolar societies that lack mixed categories.

2. SYMBOLIZATION

We give names or other symbols to the classifications. We name people “Jews” or “Gypsies,” or distinguish them by colors or dress ; we apply the symbols to members of groups. When combined with hatred, symbols may be forced upon unwilling members of pariah groups the yellow star for Jews under Nazi rule the blue scarf for people from the Eastern Zone in Khmer Rouge Cambodia. In Rwanda the people had the identities which showed their ethnics Hutu, Twa and Tutsi.

3. DEHUMANIZATION

One group denies the humanity of the other group. Members of it are equated with animals, vermin, insects or diseases. This is done through radio and print propaganda. Dehumanization overcomes the normal human revulsion against murder – in other words, it is very easy because murder the murders see that the victims are not seen as human. The main example of dehumanization is in Rwanda where the Tutsi given different names such snakes (inzoka), inyenzi and other names which dehumanize the people.
4. ORGANIZATION
Genocide is always organized usually by the state, often using militias to provide deniability of state responsibility (the Janjaweed in Darfur – literally). Special army units or militias are often trained and armed. Sometimes organization is informal or decentralized (terrorist groups). Interahamwe were trained and given the arm so as to kill all Tutsi.

5. POLARIZATION

Extremists drive the groups apart. Hate groups broadcast polarizing propaganda. Laws may forbid intermarriage or social interaction. Extremist terrorism targets moderates, intimidating and silencing the center. Moderates from the perpetrators’ own group are most able to stop genocide, so are the first to be arrested and killed

6. PREPARATION

Victims are identified and separated out because of their ethnic or religious identity. Death lists are drawn up. Members of victim groups are forced to wear identifying symbols. Their property is confiscated. They are often segregated into ghettoes, deported into concentration camps, or confined to a famine-struck region and starved. In Rwanda the Tutsi were departured in Bugesera.

7.EXTERMINATION

Extermination begins, and quickly becomes the mass killing legally called “genocide. It is “extermination” to the killers because they do not believe the victims to be fully human. When it is sponsored by the state, the armed forces often work with militias to do the killing.

8. DENIAL

Denial is the eighth stage that always follows genocide. It is among the surest indicators of further genocidal massacres. The perpetrators of genocide dig up the mass graves, burn the bodies, try to cover up the evidence and intimidate the witnesses. They deny that they committed any crimes and often blame what happened on the victims. They block investigations of the crimes, and continue to govern until driven from power by force when they flee into exile. The response to denial is punishment by an international tribunal or national courts.
Source : Slideshare.net

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