Ko ibiciro ku masoko bimanuka inyungu fatizo ya BNR igahagama?

Ubwanditsi
Yanditswe na Ubwanditsi

Banki Nkuru y’u Rwanda (BNR) yagumishije inyungu fatizo yayo kuri 7.5% mu mezi atatu ari imbere nk’uko byari bimeze mu gihembwe gishize, mu rwego rwo gukomeza guhangana n’umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro ku masoko.

Ni umwanzuro wafatiwe mu Nama ya Komite ya Politiki y’Ifaranga y’iki gihembwe. Iyi nama ni yo igena igipimo cy’inyungu fatizo ya Banki Nkuru kizagenderwaho mu mezi atatu ari imbere.

Guverineri wa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, John Rwangombwa, yavuze ko nubwo izamuka ry’ibiciro rizamanuka rikagera kuri 5% mu 2024, hakiri ikibazo cy’amakimbirane mu Burasirazuba bw’Isi cyane cyane intambara ya Israel na Palestine n’ibibazo biyishamikiyeho mu Nyanja Itukura ndetse n’intambara ya Ukraine n’u Burusiya, bikomeje kuba imbogamizi ku bucuruzi. Hari kandi imihindagurikire y’ikirere ishobora kuzagira ingaruka mbi ku musaruro w’ubuhinzi.

Ati “Ku bw’ibyo twahisemo kugumisha inyungu fatizo ya BNR ku gipimo cya 7.5% kugira ngo tubanze twizere ko uku kugabanyuka k’umuvuduko w’ibiciro tubona kuzakomeza nk’uko tubyifuza tukazagera kuri ya 5% muri 2024”.

Rwangombwa yavuze ko bakurikije uko bigaragara hatagize igihinduka mu bihembwe biri imbere bashobora gutangira kugabanya urwunguko rwa Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, bitewe n’uko umuvuduko w’ibiciro ku masoko uzaba umeze mu bihembwe biri imbere.

Yavuze ko nubwo umuvuduko w’ibiciro wagabanutse ukagera kuri 5%, nk’igipimo BNR yifuzaga, byabaye ngombwa ko habaho ubushishozi mu kwihutira kumanura urwunguko rw’iyi banki hatarabaho kwizera ko ibyo imibare igaragaza ari byo koko mu buryo burambye. Ikindi kandi ni uko bigaragara ko Banki zitihutira kuzamura urwunguko ziheraho abantu amafaranga.

Muri Kanama 2023 nibwo Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu yazamuye inyungu fatizo yayo iyikura kuri 7% yari iriho mu gihembwe cya mbere cy’uyu mwaka, iyishyira kuri 7,5%.

BNR iteganya ko umuvuduko w’izamuka ry’ibiciro ku masoko uzagera kuri 5% uyu mwaka, ni mu gihe mu Ukuboza 2023, umuvuduko w’ibiciro ku masoko wari wageze kuri 6.4% naho muri Mutarama ugera kuri 5%. Igipimo cyiza cyifuzwa ni hagati ya 2%-8%.

Iri gabanuka rizaturuka ku ngamba za politiki y’ifaranga n’iza leta zigamije gukumira izamuka rikabije ry’ibiciro hamwe n’igabanuka ry’ibiciro by’ibicuruzwa fatizo ku isoko mpuzamahanga.

Rwangombwa avuga kandi ko “Ibi akenshi bihuzwa n’uko ibiciro by’ibiribwa byaramanutse cyane kubera ko twagize umusaruro mwiza mu mwaka ushize, leta yashyize imbaraga cyane mu gukorana n’abahinzi mu kongera umusaruro, ikirere kiba cyiza…ibiciro byaramanutse ugereranyije n’umwaka ushize, ari byo byatumye umuvuduko ku masoko utangira kumanuka”.

Ubukungu bw’Isi muri rusange buri kugenda buzahuka, bikaba biteganyijwe ko buzazamuka 3.1% mu 2024, naho mu mwaka utaha bigere kuri 3.2%.

Biteganyijwe ko izamuka ry’ibiciro rizagera kuri 5.8% muri uyu mwaka mu gihe byari 6.8% ku Isi yose. Muri Afurika yo munsi y’ubutayu bwa Sahara, iri zamuka rizaba 13.1% rivuye kuri 15.8% umwaka ushize.

Rwangombwa yavuze ko mu 2023 ubukungu bw’u Rwanda buzazamuka kurenza 6.2% byari biteganyijwe.

Ibyo wamenya ku nyungu fatizo ya BNR

Inyungu fatizo ya BNR ni yo ifatirwaho igihe bikenewe ko BNR ari yo yohereza amafaranga mu mabanki cyangwa igihe bikenewe ko iyakurayo.

Ni ukuvuga ko hari igihe BNR iha amabanki amafaranga ayakeneye mu gihe cy’icyumweru ku nyungu ya 7.5% ariko nanone hari igihe bikenerwa ko amafaranga agaruka muri BNR, amabanki akajya kuyabitsa ari BNR ibibasabye nk’uburyo bumwe bwo guhangana n’ibiciro ku isoko.

BNR ishobora kongera amafaranga cyangwa ikayagabanya bitewe n’uko iri kubona ari umurengera ku isoko.

BNR isaba amabanki kujya kubitsa amafaranga iyo ibona amabanki hari ayo yasaguye, ni ukuvuga ayasigaye nyuma y’uko abakiliya hari ayo bakeneye bakayabona. Ayo yose atakoreshejwe hari igihe BNR ibona ari menshi ikavuga ngo ‘muyazane tuyabike kugira ngo ataza guteza ibibazo by’izamuka ry’ibiciro rikabije kuko atakoreshejwe’.

Aya mafaranga iyo amabanki ayajyanye muri BNR ikayabika, iyabika ku nyungu fatizo [uyu munsi ni 7.5%, ariko nanone iyo amabanki ayakeneye [iyo abakiliya bayakeneye] BNR ikabona ayari mu mabanki agiye kuba make, izana ayo ibitse cyangwa ayayo ikayaha amabanki.

Bisobanuye ko iyo nyungu fatizo ibarwa ku mafaranga BNR iri bwinjize mu mabanki cyangwa ayo iri buvane mu mabanki.

Ibi bikorwa mu minsi irindwi. Iri janisha ni ku mwaka ariko ayangaya ni iminsi irindwi itarenga, bishobora no kuba umunsi umwe, ibiri, bitewe n’uko isesengura ryabonye ko umurengera uhari uri bumare iminsi ibiri.

BNR ikora isesengura yabona ko yenda umurengera w’amafaranga uhari [amafaranga yasagutse] ushobora kumara iminsi runaka ntawe uyakoresheje, igahamagara amabanki akayajyana ikayungukira rya janisha ry’inyungu fatizo mu minsi idashobora kurenga irindwi. Iyo irenze hari ukundi bigenwa.

Kuzamura inyungu fatizo bimanura gute ibiciro ku masoko?

Kuzamura inyungu fatizo ya Banki Nkuru y’Igihugu, bifite uruhare rukomeye cyane mu kugabanya ibiciro ku masoko.

Urugero niba BNR yahera banki amafaranga ku nyungu ya 7.5% cyangwa iramutse iyafashe yayafatira kuri 7.5%, ni icyerekezo iba yatanze, ku buryo iyo banki nazo zigiye kugurizanya hagati yazo ziba zizi ayo BNR ishobora kuziheraho n’ayo ishobora kuyafatiraho igihe abaye umurengera.

Ibi byerekana uko amafaranga ari kugenda arushaho guhenda kuko iyo bivuye kuri 6.5%, 7% bikajya kuri 7.5% bivuze ko amafaranga yatangiye guhenda.

Mu bukungu, iyo ikintu cyahenze gikenerwa gake, bivuze ko amabanki agurizanya hagati yayo ashobora gukomeza ariko umukiriya wa banki wari ukeneye kujya kuri banki niyumva ko hazamutseho ikintu, imibare ye irahinduka.

Bituma abantu bafata amadeni y’ibintu by’ibanze bikenewe cyane bakareka ibyo kwinezeza. Icyo gihe n’ababicuruza babona ko abaguzi babaye bake bakagabanya igiciro.

Iyo abantu bagabanyije amafaranga bagatangira kubara ibyo bagiye kugura, ababisaba baba bake, ababicuruza nabo bagabanya ibiciro.

 

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