Abatsindira ibihembo byitiriwe Nobel bakoresha iki akayabo bahabwa?

Higiro Adolphe
Yanditswe na Higiro Adolphe

Ibihembo byitiriwe Alfred Bernhard Nobel bimenyerewe ku izina rya ‘’Prix Nobel’’ byatangiye gutangwa mu 1901. Nk’uko Nobel wabyitiriwe yasize abisabye, bihabwa abantu bakoze ibikorwa by’indashyikirwa byafashije abatuye isi mu nzego 6: Ubugenge (physique), Ubutabire (chimie), Ubwanditsi, Ubuganga, Ubukungu ndetse n’Amahoro.

Uyu mugabo Nobel yavukiye mu gihugu cya Suwede, avukira mu muryango w’abashakashatsi bafite n’inganda. Azwiho kuba ari we wahimbye ‘’urutambi’’ rukoreshwa mu gusatura ahantu hakomeye, kimwe mu byamugize umukire cyane muri icyo gihe kuko isi yose yari imuhanze amaso.

Nobel nta mwana yigeze, ajya gupfa yasize asabye ko imitungo ye izajya ihabwa abakoze ibikorwa bihambaye bifasha rubanda, muri ziriya nzego twavuze haruguru. Uko ni ko yasabye ko hajyaho ikigega kimwitirirwa, akaba yaragisizemo imitungo ye hafi ya yose. Kuva icyo gihe, ibi bihembo biratangwa buri mwaka.

Bahembwa akayabo. Kajya he?

Abatsindira ibi bihembo ntibambikwa imidari gusa, ahubwo iherekezwa n’amafaranga agenda ahindagurika bitewe n’uko ababishinzwe babigennye bagendeye ku buryo ubukungu bw’isi buhagaze.

Nko mu 2023, uwatsindiye iki gihembo yahawe ishimwe rya miliyoni 11 SEK (amafaranga akoreshwa muri Sewede), ni ukuvuga miliyoni 1 n’ibihumbi 35 y’amadolari (1 035 000$), arenga gato miliyari 1 na miliyoni 300 ushyize mu mafaranga y’u Rwanda.

Buri wese yemerewe kuyakoresha icyo ashaka, kandi ngo si ngombwa ko kiba kijyanye n’ibyatumye agihabwa.

Umuyobozi wa Fondation Nobel, Lars Heikensten agira ati ‘’Biterwa n’uwatsinze igihugu aturukamo, imitungo asanganywe n’uko abayeho…Ni we ugena icyo azakoresha ayo mafaranga.’’

Serge Haroche wahawe iki gihembo mu Bugenge mu 2012 yavuze ko agiye kuyashora mu bijyanye n’imitungo itimukanwa.

Elfriede Jelinek, umwanditsikazi wo mu gihugu cya Otrishe yagihawe mu 2004, avuga ko agiye gukemura ibibazo bye asanganywe byari byaramunaniye.

Umushakashatsi muri kaminuza, Anna Gunda avuga ko abanditsi bo ari ibindi bindi kuko ngo akenshi ibitabo byabo bitabinjiriza uko bikwiye, ari na yo mpamvu iyo batsindiye kiriya gihembo basa n’abahagaritse umuvuduko bari bariho wo kwandika bakigira mu bindi.

Perezida wa 44 wa Amerika, Barack-Obama ni umwe bahawe Prix Nobel yitiriwe Amahoro

Ku batsindira kiriya gihembo ariko mu bijyanye n’Amahoro ngo bisa n’ibihinduka kuko akenshi baba bahanzwe amaso n’abababaza icyo bazayakoresha. Akenshi bihabwa abanyapolitiki bakomeye, imiryango itagengwa na Leta cyangwa impirimbanyi z’amahoro zizwi mu rwego mpuzamahanga.

Nk’igihembo cy’Amahoro cyitiriwe Nobel cyo mu 2009 cyahawe uwahoze ari Perezida wa Amerika, Barack Obama. Icyo mu 2012 cyahawe Umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’ibihugu by’i Burayi. Ibyo byombi babihaye imiryango y’abagiraneza ngo azayifashe mu bikorwa byayo.

Nelson Mandela wayoboye Afurika y’Epfo na we yahawe Prix Nobel akiri Perezida

Hari n’abahitamo kwifashisha icyo gihembo bagatera inkunga imishinga yabo bihangiye, nk’uwahoze ari Perezida wa Finlande, Martti Ahtisaari wagihawe mu 2008 akayajyana mu muryango yari yarashinze wo gukemura amakimbirane.

Uwahoze ari Perezida wa Amerika, Woodrow Wilson, ubwo yagihabwaga mu 1920 yafashe amafaranga yose ayashyira muri banki avuga ko ateganyirije amasaziro ye igihe azaba atakiri perezida.

Umunyamerika Paul Sharp wahawe icy’Ubutabire mu 1993 yahise yiguriramo inzu y’agatangaza yo guturamo mu masaziro.

Magingo aya, Abaperezida bahawe igihembo cy’Amahoro mu byitiriwe Nobel ariko bakagihabwa bakiri ku butegetsi ni 20. Aha twavugamo nka Mikhaïl Gorbachev mu 1990, Nelson Mandela  mu 1993, Jimmy Carter mu 2002, Barack Obama mu 2009, Ellen Johnson Sirleaf mu 2011, Juan Manuel Santos mu 2016, n’abandi.

Isangize abandi
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