Inama ya AU: Ibibazo by’ingutu birindwi bitegereje AU mu 2024

Ubwanditsi
Yanditswe na Ubwanditsi

Mu mpera z’iki cyumweru indege ziraba zicicikana mu kirere cya Addis Ababa, abakuru b’ibihugu na za Guverinoma ba Afurika bajya, banava mu nama y’Umuryango wa Afurika Yunze Ubumwe (AU), izaterana kuwa 17-18 Gashyantare 2024.

Ni inama isanze ikirere cya Afurika cyijimye mu mpande zose kubera intambara, kurebana ay’ingwe hagati y’ibihugu, guhirika ubutegetsi, agatotsi muri miyoborere y’ibihugu ndetse no kudasenyera umugozi umwe mu miryango y’uturere. Ni umwaka w’amakimbirane muri Afurika.

Muri iyi nkuru turagaruka ku bintu iyi nama isanze ku mugabane wa Afurika bikwiye gushyira ku meza bikaganiraho kandi bigashakirwa umuti ku neza y’umugabane wose.

Urwijiji muri demokarasi

Kuva mu 2020, AU imaze guhagarika ibihugu bitandatu kubera kudeta za gisirikare zabibayemo. Umwaka ushize habaye ebyiri; muri Niger na Gabon. Imvano y’izi kudeta zose usanga ari ibibazo by’umutekano muke mu bihugu, kugundira ubutegetsi bikagera aho abaturage bivumbagatanya, kwimika ruswa, icyenewabo n’undi mwanda wose mu miyoborere.

Mu maguru mashya, AU ikwiye gushyiraho uburyo bushya bwo guteza imbere no kwimakaza demokarasi n’imiyoborere myiza muri iki gihe.

AU kandi ikwiye kutaruca ngo irumire ku manyanga akorwa mu matora hirya no hino kuko bihindanya isura yayo nk’urwego rushinzwe no kureberera amahame ya demokarasi. Ibi kandi biteza umwuka mubi mu bihugu kuko abatsinzwe amatora bigabiza imihanda bakigaragambya.

Iyo mu bihugu habaye kudeta, usanga AU n’imiryango y’uturere bitavuga rumwe ku cyo gukora. Hari abashaka ibiganiro abandi bagashaka gukoresha ingufu za gisirikare. Hakwiye kujyaho umurongo umwe uca intege abimika kudeta. Ibi bijyana no kuba ibihugu bifatirwa ibihano ariko ishyirwa mu bikorwa ryabyo rikaba ikibazo, bigatiza umurindi abakoze kudeta bakagumana ubutegetsi.

Kugoboka Sudan bwangu

Intambara yo muri Sudan nta cyizere cyo guhagarara gihari. Imirwano hagati ya RSF ya General Mohamed Hamdan “Hemedti” Dagalo n’ingabo ziyobowe na General Abdel-Fattah Burhan imaze gutuma abaturage miliyoni esheshatu bava mu byabo kuva muri Mata 2023.

Abasesenguzi berekana ko amahanga yatereye agati mu ryinyo akirengagiza ibibera muri Sudan. Imwe mu mpamvu ni inyungu bimwe mu bihugu bifite muri iyi ntambara. Nka Leta zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu zishyigikiye RSF imaze kwigarurira kimwe cya kabiri cy’igihugu. Ni mu gihe Misiri, Iran na Eritrea bashyigikiye ingabo za leta.

Mu ntangiriro za Mutarama, Perezida wa komisiyo ya AU, Moussa Faki Mahamat, yashyizeho itsinda ryo kugarura amahoro muri Sudan ariko ntakiragerwaho. Loni igaragaza ko iyi ntambara imaze kwica abagera ku bihumbi 12.

Umutekano muri Ethiopia

Binyuze mu biganiro byabereye muri Pretoria muri Afurika y’Epfo, AU yagize uruhare rukomeye mu gutuma guverinoma na TPLF basinyana amasezerano mu Ugushyingo 2022 yashyize iherezo ku ntambara yo muri Tigray.

Nyuma y’imyaka ibiri y’imirwano, abayobozi ba Tigray bemeye kurambika intwaro hasi, guverinoma yemererwa gusubira i Mekelle nayo yemera kubasubiza amashanyarazi, itumanaho rya telefoni ndetse n’ubufasha bukagera muri Tigray. Aka karere gafite abayobozi b’inzibacyuho ariko haracyari ibibazo by’umutekano muke.

Imidugararo irakomeje mu majyepfo ya Oromia mu gihe abo muri Amhara banze kumvira guverinoma nkuru. AU igomba gukora ku buryo amasezerano ya Pretoria yubahirizwa kandi igashyiramo akaboko kayo mu gukemura ibibazo byo muri Oromia na Amhara.

Hari kandi ikibazo cy’umwuka mubi hagati ya Ethiopia na Somalia, gishingiye ku masezerano yagiranye na Somaliland yo kubaka ibirindiro bya gisirikare. Ku rundi ruhande Somalia ivuga ko Ethiopia itagomba kugirana amasezerano na Somaliland kuko ari igice cyayo.

Kutumvikana k’u Rwanda na RDC

Muri RDC hari ibibazo akavagari. Amatora yabaye mu Ukuboza 2023 yavuzwemo amanyanga ndetse n’ubu rurageretse. Ibi byiyongera ku mitwe yitwaje intwaro irenga 120 ikorera mu burasirazuba bw’iki gihugu ndetse n’intambara ikomeje guhanganisha M23 n’ingabo za leta FARDC.

Intambara yo mu Burasirazuba ikomeje guhindura isura nyuma y’uko Tshisekedi ahaye rugari ingabo za SADC ngo zimufashe kurwanya M23. Ku rundi ruhande, iyi ntambara yakuruye umwuka mubi hagati y’u Rwanda na RDC irushinja gufasha M23 nubwo rudahwema kubyamagana.

Tshisekedi yageze aho akangisha ko azatera u Rwanda nubwo umuvugizi wa Guverinoma, Patrick Muyaya, aherutse kuvuga ko ‘bidashoboka’. AU ikwiye gukorana n’abahuza nka Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika mu gucubya umwuka mubi hagati y’ibihugu byombi.

Uretse u Rwanda, RDC ifitanye ikibazo na Kenya kuko yanze gufata Corneille Nangaa wahoze ayobora komisiyo y’amatora. Perezida Ruto yavuze ko adashaka kwivanga mu bibazo by’imbere muri RDC, bituma Kinshasa ihamagaza ambasaderi wayo.

Ikibazo cy’akarere ka Sahel

Ibihugu byo mu karere ka Sahel birimo Burkina Faso, Mali and Niger biri mu bihe bikomeye mu bijyanye na demokarasi. Mu 2023 imvururu za gisirikare zimaze guhitana abagera ku bihumbi 12 biganjemo abasivili muri ibi bihugu bitatu.

Kudeta ni kimwe mu byaranze ibi bihugu mu myaka itatu ishize, ndetse na dipolomasi yabyo n’u Bufaransa izamo agatotsi, ingabo zabwo zisimburwa n’iz’u Burusiya muri aka gace. AU nk’urwego rureberera demokarasi ikwiye gutunga itoroshi muri ibi bihugu.

Amatora muri Sudan y’Epfo

Sudan y’Epfo irateganya amatora mu Ukuboza 2024, akaba ari aya mbere agiye kuba kuva yabona ubwigenge mu 2011 nyuma yo gusubikwa inshuro nyinshi ku buryo n’ubu ashobora kongera gusubikwa.

Mu bice bitandukanye haracyari intambara nubwo mu 2018 hari amasezerano yasinywe hagati ya Perezida Salva Kiir na Visi Perezida Riek Machar. Intambara iri muri Sudan bituranye yongereye ibinyoro mu bibembe.

Abasesengura bagaragaza ko Sudan y’Epfo idashobora gukora amatora ngo haburemo imvururu kandi zahitana benshi. Uretse kuba hataremezwa uburyo amatora azakorwa, n’ingengo y’imari ya miliyoni 250$ ntabwo iraboneka.

Ubwiyunge bwa Maroc na Algerie

AU igomba gushaka uburyo bwo gukemura amakimbirane hagati ya Maroc na Algerie. Aya makimbirane ashingiye ku kuba Maroc ifata Western Sahara nk’agace kayo mu gihe Algerie ishyigikiye ko ihabwa ubwigenge.

Biteganyijwe ko Perezida wa Comores, Azali Assoumani, uyoboye AU azashyikiriza inkoni mugenzi we uturuka mu Majyaruguru ya Afurika. Yaba Maroc na Algerie, ni abakandida. AU igomba gushaka ubwiyunge hagati y’ibi bihugu ku buryo byumvikana ku muyobozi wa AU, kugira ngo bitarogoya inama.

AU kandi ifite umukoro wo gushaka uzasimbura Moussa Faki Mahamat nubwo amatora azaba mu nama y’umwaka utaha ya 2025.

Abasesenguzi bagaragaza ko abayobozi ba Afurika baba biteze byinshi kuri AU ariko ntibayishyigikire yaba mu buryo bwa politiki ndetse n’ubushobozi bw’amafaranga kuko uyu munsi uyu mugabane ubasha gufashwa na Loni ku kigero cya 75% ku ngengo y’imari y’ubutumwa bw’amahoro, andi ukayishakamo. Niba kwigira ari yo ntego, ibihugu binyamuryango bikize bikwiye gutanga imisanzu.

 

 

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