Ubujura bw’ibihangano mu bikomeje kugwingiza abanyempano

Ubwanditsi
Yanditswe na Ubwanditsi

Si igitangaza ko mu bugeni n’ubuhanzi muri rusange ushobora gusanga umuntu yaramamaye kandi igihangano cyamwamamaje ari icyo yibye undi muntu cyangwa yiyitiriye. Akenshi usanga bahisha ba nyirabyo wenda kuko bo batabashije kumenyekana, bityo bikagwingiza abanyempano.

Umwimerere mu bintu kuva na kera wagiye ugora abantu, aho benshi usanga kugira ngo bagire ibyo bakora bibasaba kugira ibyo bareberaho cyangwa se bigana. Akenshi ukaba wakumva ibikorwa byabo ukagira ngo ni umwimerere kandi wenda ari ibikorwa by’abandi bafashe bakabyiyitirira.

Ubujura mu by’ubwenge cyangwa se gusubiramo ibikorwa by’abandi ukabyiyitirira n’ibintu birambye cyane, bihurizwa mu cyitwa ‘Plagiarism’, bivuga kwiyitirira ibikorwa cyangwa se ibihangano by’undi nk’inyandiko, amajwi n’amashusho, ukabigira ibyawe utamusabye uburenganzira, nta naho ugaragaje ko nibura ibyo bintu ari we wabikoze.

‘Plagiarism’ ikunda gukoreshwa cyane mu nyandiko aho abantu benshi bafata ibikorwa by’abandi nk’inyandiko, igihangano, igisigo, umuvugo, n’ibindi bitandukanye, bagasa n’ababisubiramo gato cyangwa se uko byakabaye bakabyandika mu mazina yabo bikitwa ibyabo nyamara hari abandi babivunikiye bafite umwimerere wabyo.

Kwiyitirira inyandiko zitari izawe byagiye bikoreshwa cyane cyane mu mashuri aho usanga nk’abanyeshuri barangiza za kaminuza bandika ibitabo birimo ibihangano by’abandi, ibyo bita guterura, bakabyiyitirira bacyeka ko nta hantu byamenyekana kugeza wenda igihe bazavumburirwa bikabona guteshwa agaciro, mu bihugu bitandukanye hari aho batesha agaciro za Dipolome zabo kubera ko bavuga ko nta mwimerere bigeze bagira mu bikorwa byabo.

Kenshi hajya hanumvikana abahanzi bivugwa ko bashishuye cyangwa se basubiyemo ibihangano by’abandi bagahinduraho gato, ugasanga yibye umwimerere w’indirimbo yabandi akawukora akawiyitirira, ndetse no ku rubuga rwa YouTube hajya humvikana abashinjwa gukoresha ibihangano bitari ibyabo, rimwe na rimwe ibikorwa byabo bigahagarikwa.

Imvano y’imvugo ‘gushishura’ mu Rwanda

Mu ruganda rwa muzika habamo guhanga, kwiba ibihangano, gushishura n’ibindi. Guhanga ni uguhimba ibishya, mu gihe kwiba ibihangano ari ukwiyitirira igihangano cy’undi kandi utaranakiguze, gushishura byo ni imvugo ikunze gukoreshwa ku bahanzi bigana ibihangano by’abandi, aho usanga yaba amagambo ndetse n’injyana ntacyo bahinduye, usibye wenda ururimi indirimbo ihimbyemo.

Imvugo yo gushishura yadutse mu Rwanda muri za 2010 izanywe na Dj Adams watamazaga benshi mu bahanzi babaga bakoresheje bimwe mu bigize ibihangano by’abandi, yavugaga ko bimunga mu buryo bukabije umuziki Nyarwanda.

Mu Rwanda kimwe n’ahandi ku isi naho mu muziki habamo gushishura aho hari indirimbo usanga abahanzi baburana ko umwe muri bo yibwe cyangwa yibye iyo ndirimbo, izindi zikaba zarashishuwe, ibi bikaba bigirwamo uruhare n’abatunganya indirimbo (Producers).

Dufashe urugero rwo mu Rwanda, nko muzamyekanye kurusha izindi harimo: Naremewe wowe, indirimbo yasohowe n’abahanzi babiri: Alyn Sano muri 2018, na Yverry mu mpera za 2019, uhereye ku izina ryayo ukagera ku ijambo ku rindi, ndetse n’injyana, indirimbo ya Yverry yari imeze kimwe n’indirimbo ya Alyn Sano yasohoye mbere ye, ibi byaje no gutera umwuka mubi hagati y’aba bahanzi ndetse n’abafana babo.

Indi ndirimbo nyarwanda yavuzweho gushishura ku rwego rwo hejuru ni Marigarita ya Social Mula yasohotse muri 2020, aho ikijya hanze umuhanzi witwa Possible yahise atangira kuvuga ko ari iye yayibwe, ndetse n’ubu izi ndirimBo zihari ari ebyiri.

Si izi ndirimbo gusa kuko hari n’izindi nyinshi zagiye zishishurwa, yaba izashishuwe ku ndirimbo z’amahanga, ndetse no mu gihugu, aho umwe afatirana undi bitewe wenda n’ubwamamare amurusha akaba yamwiba igihangano cye.

Ubundi mu busanzwe hari ibyitwa ‘Copyrights’, uburenganzira umuntu aba afite kumwimerere w’igihangano cye, ugikeneye akaba yamusaba uburenganzira, niba ari ishusho, ijwi, beat cyangwa se umudiho ukoreshwa mu ndirimbo ukaba wabikoresha, iyo utabikoze utyo ushinjwa kwiba igihangano kubera ko byose n’umutungo mu by’ubwenge.

Ndetse ibi ni ibikorwa nanone bimenyerewe mu itangazamakuru, aho bamwe biba inkuru z’abandi bakaziyitirira batagaragaje ko atari bo babikoze.

Nubwo abahanga benshi bahuriza hamwe ko uburyo bwo guhagarika ubu bujura cyangwa se kubukuraho burundu bisa n’ibigoye cyangwa bidashoboka, ngo gukemura iki kibazo ntabwo byagakomeye kuko bisaba ko nibura uwakoze icyo gikorwa azirikana nyiracyo akagaragaza nk’izina rye cyangwa ikigo. Gusa kugeza ubu kuzirikana uwakoze ikintu n’uwo cyavunnye uyu munsi biracyagoye abantu benshi.

Inkomoko ya ‘Plagiarism’

Ijambo ‘Plagiarism’ ryakoreshejwe bwa mbere mu mwaka wa 80 nyuma gato y’ivuka rya Yesu ubwo umusizi w’Umuromani witwa Marcial yageragezaga gukoresha ijambo ryo mu Kiratini abyita ‘Plagiarius’ aho yasobanuraga ko hari imirongo yo mu gisigo cye yari yibwe. Mu mwaka 1600 undi musizi w’Umwongereza, Ben Johnson, yongeye gukoresha ijambo nkiryo we abyita ‘Plagiary’ agerageza guhuza mu Cyongereza ni ryari ryarakoreshejwe na Marcial, aha nawe yasobanuraga ko hari igisigo cye cyari kibwe.

Mu myaka 1800 nibwo bwa mbere ijambo ‘Plagiarism’ ryakoreshejwe rikoreshwa n’ikigo cy’Abongereza gishinzwe ubushakashatsi ‘Academia’, iri jambo bahise bariha igisobanuro cyuko ari ukwiba cyangwa se kuzana amanyanga mu bikorwa by’ubuhanzi cyangwa se by’ubugeni bya muntu.

Mu mwaka wa 2000 ikigo cya Academia cyamuritse ‘Software’ cyangwa se uburyo bw’ikoranabuhanga bwo kuvumbura umuntu watwaye ibikorwa byundi, bivuze ngo inyandiko yose ifite ahantu yanditswe cyangwa yigeze kugaragazwa cyangwa se n’igihangano mu buryo bwamajwi kigeze gukoresha ahandi, iyi Software ya Academia ibasha kubitahura.

Mu busanzwe gukoresha ibikorwa byundi waba wabimusabye cyangwa utabimusabye byemewe ku kigero cya 15% mu mategeko, iyo birenze aho bifatwa nk’ubujura ndetse bishobora no kugeza umuntu mu mategeko akaba yakamburwa igihangano burundu cyangwa kigateshwa agaciro.

Mu mategeko y’u Rwanda, mu igazeti ya leta yo kuwa 24 Nzeri 2018 hasotsemo itegeko rikumira abigana ibihangano by’abandi nta burenganzira, aho rivuga ko umuntu wese ukoresha igihangano cy’undi nta burenganzira mu bikorwa bibyara inyungu iyo abihamijwe n’urukiko, ahanishwa igifungo kitari munsi y’imyaka 3 ariko kitarenze imyaka 5 n’ihazabu y’amafaranga y’u Rwanda atari munsi ya 3 000 000frw ariko atarenze 5 000 000frw.

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