Akaga ku hazaza h’ubuhinzi bwamamaza imvaruganda bwirengagiza imborera

Umwanditsi 3
Yanditswe na Umwanditsi 3

Iyo uvuze ubuhinzi mu Rwanda, usanga bwararenze umurimo nk’indi ahubwo ni umuco w’abanyarwanda. Ni urwego ruha akazi abarenga 80% by’abaturage bose b’igihugu. Uyu mubare ubwawo igisobanuro cyawo ni uko benshi mu batarabashije kubona akazi gashingiye ku bumenyi bahawe mu mashuri bahitamo kuba abahinzi.

Umusanzu w’urwego rw’ubuhinzi mu iterambere ry’igihugu na wo si uwo kwirengagizwa kuko nyuma ya sirivisi n’inganda, ubuhinzi ubu buratanga igipimo kiri hejuru ya 25% mu musaruro mbumbe w’u Rwanda.  Abanyarwanda 80% barihagije mu biribwa ndetse igihugu cyaguye amarembo yinjiza umusaruro w’u Rwanda ku masoko mpuzamahanga. Bituma umusaruro ukeneye guhora wiyongera.

Iterambere ntashidikanwa ho ry’uru rwego ahanini ryubakiye kuri gahunda zitandukanye zakubiwe mu cyitwa “Iyamamazabuhinzi”. Nubwo iyamamazabuhinzi rifite byinshi rigarukaho bigize uruhererekane rubyara umusaruro ushimishije uyu munsi; reka tugaruke ku ikoreshwa ry’ifumbire mvaruganda nk’imwe muri gahunda uyu munsi zishishikarizwa abahinzi.

Kongera ikoreshwa ry’ifumbire mvaruganda ni ingingo guverinoma  y’u Rwanda yashyizemo imbaraga cyane ndetse imibare yo mu 2023 yerekanye ko ubu kuri Hegitari imwe mu Rwanda hakoreshwa ibilo 70; bivuye ku biro 32 byakoreshwaga mu 2017.

Iki ni igipimo Guverinoma igaragaza ko ikomeje gusaba abahinzi ko cyakwiyongera kikagera ku biro 150 kuri Hegitari. Si ibyo u Rwanda rwinginga kandi kuko ubu iyi fumbire yatumizwaga i mahanga igiye gukorerwa mu Bugesera.

Umuvuno w’ifumbire mvaruganga utwaye iki?

Ifumbire mvaruganda iriyongera mu gihe ifumbire mborera yakabaye iyunganira ndetse byakabaye bigendana  yo igenda ikendera. Ku buso buhingwa mu Rwanda bungana na hegitali Miliyoni 1 n’ibihumbi 400 niba kuri hegitali hakoreshwa ibiro 70 bivuze ko u Rwanda rukoresha Toni ibihumbi 98 z’ifumbire mvaruganda.

Abahanga mu by’ubutaka bagaragaza ko kuri Hegitali 1 hakenewe M3 35 z’imborera (nibura ni imodoka 5 za Fuso nini); bivuze ko haba hakenewe Fuso Miliyoni 7 z’imborera ku mwaka. Nyamara ariko nta ngamba zigaragaza ko iyi mborera ikenewe nayo igenda yiyongera ndetse amavugurura mu bworozi ntiyibanda mu gushaka imborera nka kimwe mu musaruro w’ubworozi.

Akaga rero aho gashingiye ni uko muri iri yamamazabuhinzi hazamuka igipimo cy’ifumbire mvaruganda nyamara hakirengagizwa ifumbire mborera. Ibi bishobora kuzageza ubwo igihugu kizasigarana ubutaka budashobora kumeraho igihingwa na kimwe.

Hambere abanyarwanda bakunze kugenda biguruntege mu gukoresha ifumbire mvaruganda, nubwo wasangaga bivugwa n’abahinzi badashobora kubigaragariza mu buryo bwa siyansi. Bakavuga gusa ko ifumbire mvaruganda ituma umurima ugunduuka ngo “iyo wayikoresheje bigusaba guhora uyikoresha kugira ngo ubone umusaruro.”

Uwakoresheje imvaruganda nta mborera ntagushidikanya umurima we ugenda umusaba kongera ingano y’iyo yari yarakoresheje ndetse bikazagera aho bimusaba ko azatera urubuto ku ifumbire gusa; kuko ubutaka buzaba busigaranye akamaro kamwe ko gufata igihingwa ngo kitagwa ariko nta zindi ntungagihingwa bushobora kugiha.

 Siyansi ivuga iki ?

Ubundi mu ifumbire habamo ibyo ibihingwa bikeneye koko, hakabamo n’ibituma ibasha kugira ishusho tuyibonana. Urugero nk’ifumbire yitwa NPK 17-17-17 ziriya nyuguti eshatu N,P,K zihagarariye ibinyabutabire bigize iriya fumbire. Ni nabyo igihingwa gikeneye muri yo. Iriya mibare 17-17-17 igaragaza ingano ya buri kinyabutabire muri biriya 3 iri mu ifumbire. Iyo uteranije 17+17+17 ubona 51 bivuze ko ibyo igihingwa gihawe ni 51% by’ibigize turiya tubuye twitwa NPK 17-17-17.

Ikibazo rero, ese niba 51% ari byo twahaye igihingwa, 49% isigaye bimaze icyi? Bijya mu butaka bigakoramo iki? Ese bivamo cyangwa bigumamo? Ifumbire zose mvaruganda niko zikoze uretse ko zigenda zitanwa ku ngano ya buri kinyabutabire muri biriya 3 twavuze muri NPK.

Abahanga mu bumenyi bw’ubutaka bemeza ko n’ahari ubutaka budasharira, ubusharire bwaho bugenda bwiyongera uko hakomeza kongerwa biriya binyabutabire bijya mu butaka kandi bidakenewe n’ibihingwa.

Isano n’udusimba turya imyaka mu bihe by’umumero

Mu mikorere y’udukoko duto tugira uruhare rukomeye mu ikorwa ry’intungagihingwa ziba mu ifumbire, utu dusimba dutungwa n’ibisigazwa bitabwa mu butaka tukabicagagura ariko bibora umwanda watwo ukabyara intungagihingwa ziri mu ifumbire mborera.

Iyo rero ubutaka buhinzwe nta mborera ahubwo hakongerwa imvaruganda twa dukoko twari dutegereje ko hari ikizatabwa mu butaka ngo tukirye, twakira imbuto yahinzwe. Niho uzasanga mu gihe cyo kumera udusimba turiye ya mbuto hakamera nke muri yo cyangwa se ntinamere yose kuko yaririwe munsi y’ubutaka itaratunguka. Ibi abahinzi babyita “Uruyongobezamumero.”

Kuki tudakwiriye kwigereranya n’amahanga?

Akenshi iyo uganiriye n’abafite ubuhinzi mu nshingano mu ngingo y’ifumbire mvaruganda ikoreshwa mu buhinzi, bakubwira ko u Rwanda ntaho rwari rwagera kuko hari ibihugu byateye imbere mu buhinzi byo bikoresha ibiro bigera no muri 500 kuri Hegitali.

Ibi bivugwa hirengagijwe imiterere y’ubutaka bw’ibyo bihugu itandukanye cyane n’ubutaka bwo mu Rwanda. Ibi bihugu kandi tuba twirengagije ko bigira igihe cy’urubura, aho baba badahinga, ndetse ibiti n’ibyatsi byose byari byarameze bigahunguka bigatwikirirwa n’urubura ku butaka.

Iyo igihe cy’urubura kirangiye ubutaka bwabo busa n’ubwayunguruwemo ya myunyungugu yose ndetse buba bwarakiriye bya bisigazwa by’amababi y’ibiti yahunguwe n’ubukonje yose yaraboze akababera imborera.

Hakorwa iki?

Kwamamaza ikoreshwa ry’ifumbire mvaruganda ugasiga imborera ni ukureba hafi. Ni ukureba umusaruro w’imyaka 2 cyangwa 3 ukirengagiza ko ubutaka duhinga ari bwo n’abuzukuruza bacu bazahinga. Nta gushidikanya ko ingano y’imborera igenda igabanuka hagendewe no ku mibare y’amatungo tugenda tujya mu korora make atanga umusaruro ushimishije nk’inka imwe itanga umukamo watangwaga n’inka 10.

Hakwiriye kongerwa ingufu mu ikorwa ry’imborera. Yaba ikorwa n’ababigize umwuga yaba n’ikorwa n’abahinzi ubwabo mu bisigazwa byo mu murima cyangwa imyanda ibora. Abahinzi bakwiriye kwigishwa ko hari ingano y’imborera bagomba gushyira mu murima nk’uko bahabwa ibipimo by’ifumbire mvaruganda.

Abashinzwe ubuhinzi mu mirenge bakwiriye kandi guhora bagenzura ko amatoni y’ifumbire mvaruganda ashyirwa mu mirima avangwa n’imborera nayo ikwiriye.

Ibitari ibi twaba turi kwisiga tutoze.

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