Kuki intego z’Umuryango wa EAC zikomeje kuba amasigaracyicaro!?

Ubwanditsi
Yanditswe na Ubwanditsi

Abahanga bemeza ko ‘ushaka kugera kure ajyana n’abandi kandi nta mugabo umwe’. Iyi ni imwe mu mpamvu ibihugu usanga byishyira hamwe mu miryango igamije iterambere ry’ubukungu, kugira ngo ibito n’ibinini bihuze imbaraga byose bibe ibihangange.

Ibihugu byo muri Afurika y’Iburasirazuba byishyize hamwe bihurira mu muryango uzwi nka EAC, bishyiraho intego enye zizatuma bizamura ubukungu bwabyo. Icyakora, uwavuga ko izo ntego zikomeje kuba amasigaracyicaro ntiyaba abeshye.

Intego ya mbere ya EAC yari uguhuza imipaka (custom union), bivuze guhuza imipaka ku buryo umuntu ashobora kuva i Burundi, akajya mu Rwanda, Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya n’ahandi hose mu bihugu bigize uyu muryango nta nkomyi. Urugero, abaturage bagakoresha nk’irangamuntu imwe, nta byinshi babazwa ndetse no ku bicuruzwa bikagenda bityo.

Intego ya kabiri ni uguhuza ifaranga (monetary union), ibihugu bigize EAC bikagira ifaranga bahuriyeho kandi ibyo bishobora kuba byateza imbere ubukungu bw’ibihugu binyamuryango.

Intego ya gatatu ni ugusangira isoko (common market), ku buryo ibicuruzwa byose biciye muri EAC bizenguruka nta nkomyi kandi ugasanga n’imisoro yakuweho cyangwa yagabanyijwe ku kigero cyo hasi cyane.

Intego ya nyuma ni ijyanye no kwihuza mu bya politiki, icyakora abasesenguzi benshi bahuriza ku kuba iyi ngingo yo igoye cyane.

Intego zahindutse amasigaracyicaro?

Imwe mu mpamvu simusiga zituma ibi bihugu bitagera ku ntego byiyemeje, usanga ari ikibazo cy’imiyoborere aho usanga niba hari intego ngari zigiwe mu nama zitandukanye zitubahirizwa.

Iyo witegereje usanga ibihugu bidahuje umuco n’ubukungu ugasanga nka RDC ifite umutungo kamere ariko ibihugu by’uburengerazuba bw’isi (u Burayi na Leta zunze Ubumwe za Amerika) ndetse tutibagiwe n’Abashinwa bafite ukuboko cyane muri iki gihugu.

Muri EAC ikintu cyonyine cyabashije gukunda kandi nabwo ku kigero cyo hasi ni uguhuza imipaka (custom union), nabwo byakunze ku Rwanda, Uganda ndetse na Kenya gusa ariko kujya muri Tanzania bica mu nzira nyinshi, Burundi n’ikibazo, no gufunga imipaka bya hato na hato, kujya Congo ntibyoroshye, Somalia na Sudan y’epfo ni uko.

Usanga kugira ngo ibi byiciro uko ari bine byuzuzwe bigifite ibibazo, nko ku cyo gusangira isoko nk’umuryango (common market), hajya humvikana hafungiwe amakamyo Tanzania ahetse ibicuruzwa, mu minsi yashize igihugu cy’u Burundi cyafunze imipaka yacyo igihuza n’u Rwanda, usanga amakamyo ari gukora urugendo rurerure akajya guca Tanzania, Congo, kugira ngo akomeze ajye Kenya n’ahandi.

Ku bijyanye no guhuza ifaranga (monetary union), ni ikibazo, muri 2013 haganiriwe uburyo hakorwa ifaranga rihuza ibihugu bigize EAC, ugasanga abayobozi bayobora banki z’ibihugu ubwabo nta buryo buhamye bafite bwo kwicara ngo bahitemo ifaranga rishobora kuba riremereye muri EAC, bavuge bati reka wenda ishiringi rya Kenya ribe ariryo ryakoreshwa mu muryango wose, habeho nko kuba agaciro karyo kazamuka, ariko usanga ibihugu byose byikunda bikabyanga buri cyose cyumva ko ifaranga ryacyo ari ryo ryakazamuwe.

Ku bijyanye no kuba igihugu kimwe, biragoye cyane kuko buri gihugu gifite amateka atandukanye n’ay’ikindi ndetse n’imico y’abaturage itandukanye.

Turebye mu miryango yo mu bindi bice by’isi aho ibi byiciro byose byakunz,e ni mu muryango w’ibihugu by’u Burayi (EU). Muri uyu muryango bisa nkaho babashije kugera kuri izi ntego zose kuko usanga muri EU kuva mu Bubiligi ujya mu Bufaransa cyangwa mu Budage biroroshye, imipaka ubona ko bayihuje ndetse n’isoko.

Ikindi ni uguhuza ifaranga muri EU aho ibihugu byose bikoresha amayero ukuyemo u Bwongereza bwavuye muri EU mu 2020, bwo bukoresha amapawundi.

Ibihugu bya EAC kandi bikunze kurangwa n’umwuka mubi hagati yabyo. Mu myaka yashize u Rwanda rwari rufitanye ibibazo na Uganda, Kenya na Tanzania nabyo rugeretse. Uyu munsi umubano w’u Rwanda, u Burundi na RDC ni mubi cyane, ku rundi ruhande Tanzania na Kenya ntibacana uwaka. Ukutumvikana kwa hato na hato kugeza ku gufunga imipaka bituma uyu muryango ntacyo ugeraho.

Umwuka mubi hagati y’ibihugu utuma ingingo nyinshi ziganirwa hari ibihugu bidahagarariwe. Urugero ni aho ibiganiro byabereye mu Rwanda bititabiriwe na RDC kandi imyanzuro yafashwe nayo irayireba.

EAC yatangiye mu 1966 irimo ibihugu 3, ari byo; Tanzania, Uganda na Kenya, ariko iza guhagarara kubera amakimbirane yari hagati ya Idi Amin Dada na Julius Nyerere, nyuma taliki 30 Ugushyingo 1999, nibwo hashyizweho amasezerano yongera gushyiraho umuryango wa Afurika y’Iburasirazuba.

Aya masezerano yatangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa taliki 07, Nyakanga, 2000, niho EAC yagize imbaraga itangira gukora bigaragara. Uyu muryango ufite ikicaro Arusha muri Tanzania. U Rwanda rwinjiyemo muri 2007.

 

 

 

 

 

 

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