Isi ya ruguru n’Isi y’Epfo: Indorerwamo yo kwikunda no gusyigingiza ibihugu bikennye

Umwanditsi 3
Yanditswe na Umwanditsi 3

Muri iyi minsi iyo ukurikiranye imbwirwaruhame z’abategetsi mu mpande enye z’Isi, wumva abenshi bitsa ku bufatanye bukwiye hagati y’ibice bibiri by’Isi bidahuje ubukungu n’imyumvire ku ngingo nyinshi zirimo n’imiyoborere. Ibyo bice ni icy’Amajyepfo (Global South) n’icy’Amajyaruguru (Global North).

Mu buryo bworoshye, abitwa Isi y’Amajyepfo ni ibihugu byiganjemo ibikennye n’ibiri mu nzira y’iterambere, aha usangamo ibyo ku mugabane wa Afurika, Aziya na Amerika y’Epfo. Mu gihe abitwa Isi ya ruguru barimo ibihugu bikize byiganje ku mugabane w’u Burayi na Amerika ya Ruguru.

Ubusumbane n’ivangura hagati y’izi mpande zombi ni ingingo idasiba ku meza y’ibiganiro bihuza abakomeye, bagaragaza ko ari gishegesha mu iterambere ridaheza.

Byongeye kugarukwaho muri uku kwezi ubwo abakuru b’ibihugu n’abandi bavuga rikumvikana ku Isi bahuriraga i Davos mu Busuwisi mu nama yiga ku bukungu (World Economic Forum).

Muri iyi nama, Perezida Kagame yagaragarije isi ko ikibazo cy’ubusumbane bw’isi y’epfo n’isi ya ruguru gikwiriye gushakirwa umuti kandi ugashakwa n’impande zombi.

Yanenze bikomeye imyitwarire y’ibihugu bikize usanga byikunda, bikirebaho byonyine mu bihe by’amage ariko kandi bikanashaka kugenera ibuhugu bikennye uko bibaho; uko bigomba kuyoborwa, uko bikwiriye kuba bitekereza n’indi migirire ibisubiza inyuma.

Yagize ati “Mu gihe cya Covid-19 byaragaragaye ko inkingo ndetse n’ubuvuzi byari ikibazo kandi byose byikubirwaga n’abo mu majyaruguru, mu majyepfo bagatekerezwagaho nyuma ndetse bikerewe cyane, kubera ko mu majyepfo nta bushobozi bwo gukora iyo miti n’inkingo.”

Perezida Kagame yatanze urundi rugedo rw’igihe habagaho ihungabana ry’ubukungu ku isi yose, igisubizo kikaba kuzamura inyungu ku nguzanyo, ku buryo kugeza n’ubu benshi mu bo mu majyepfo [ibihugu bikennye] bakiri kurwana no kwishyura iyo myenda.

Asanga iki kibazo cy’ubusumbane gikomeye kandi gikeneye ubufatanye, ubujyanama, ugushyira hamwe kw’ibihugu birimo n’ibikiri mu nzira y’amajyambere kugira ngo ubu busumbane butazakomeza kugira ingaruka  ku gice runaka cy’abatuye isi.

Ku rundi ruhande, Minisitiri w’Intebe w’u Buholandi, Mark Rutte, yeruye ko ashyigikiye imyumvire ikomeje kwinubirwa na benshi. Yavuze ko ‘kuba mu nama yiga ku bukungu hazamo ingingo y’ubusumbane n’ivangura ari ugutandukira’.

Asanga igikenewe ari uko ibihugu bigira imbaraga ku rwego rwabyo ndetse bikanaganira uko byashyiraho imiryango ibihuza mu buryo bw’ubukungu ifite imbaraga.

Muri icyi kiganiro, Perezida Kagame yageze aho agaragaza ko ari umuntu wemera ko ibintu bizahinduka kandi bizagenda neza“Optimistic” ariko kandi ko ari umuntu uhitamo kukubwiza ukuri iyo guhari “Realistic” cyane cyane iyo hari ikibazo.

Ati “Ntabwo wahakana ko ubusumbane buhari, kandi hariho no kwishyira hejuru kwa bamwe, hakaba n’abashaka gutegeka uko ibintu bigomba gukorwa mu buzima bwa buri munsi kandi n’izi mpaka si ubwa mbere zibayeho; ubwabyo bisobanuye ko ikibazo nacyo cyakomeje kubaho.”

Ishusho y’ubuhahirane mu isi zombi

Imibare itangwa n’umuryango mpuzamahanga w’ubucuruzi ku isi (World Trade Organizatio) igaragaza ko ubucuruzi hagati y’igice cy’amajyaruguru y’isi ubwacyo bwari 54% by’ubucuruzi bukorwa ku isi mu 1995 ariko ko bwagiye bugabanuka bukagera kuri 39% mu 2022.

Ubucuruzi hagati y’ibihugu bibarirwa mu gice cy’amajyepfo bwo buri kuzamuka kuko mu 2022 bwageze kuri 25% buvuye munsi ya 10% mu mwaka wa 1995. Mu gihe ubuhahirane hagati y’igice cy’amajyepfo n’amajyaruguru bigize 39% by’ubucuruzi bukorwa ku isi; uko kandi niko byahoze kuva mu 1995.

Kuri Dr. Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala uyobora umuryango mpuzamahanga w’ubucuruzi ku isi (WTO) nta gihugu cyihagije ndetse igihugu kimwe ntigishobora gukemura ibibazo by’isi yose.

Inkomoko y’imvugo “Isi ya ruguru – Isi y’epfo”

Amateka y’isi yagiye atandukanya ibihugu cyane cyane agashingira ku bukungu ndetse n’imbaraga mu bya gisirikare. Mu 1952 uwitwa Alfred Sauvy yakoresheje inyito z’isi ya mbere iya kabiri n’iya gatatu. Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika kimwe n’ibihugu by’inshuti zayo byari bifite ubukungu bushingiye kuri “Capitalism” byabanje kwitwa isi ya mbere, (Fist wolrd), Ubumwe bw’Abasoviyete bwari bushingiye kuri “Communism” bwitwa isi ya kabiri (Second World) hanyuma ibihugu bisigaye byiganje mo ibikennye n’ibyari bikiri mu bukoroni byitwa (Third world).

Isenyuka ry’ubumwe bw’abasoviyete mu 1991 ryashyize iherezo ku isi ya kabiri “Second World” ubwo nibwo hatangiye kumvikana noneho isi zishingiye ku merekezo atandukanye.

Muri za 1990 Leta zunze ubumwe za Amerika zitangira inyito y’abo mu burengerazuba bw’isi, hatangira kandi inyito zirimo abo mu burasirazuba bwo hagati (ari bo biganjemo Aziya). Muri iyi myaka ya za 1990 kandi ibuhugu bikennye nabyo byakomeje kunenga amazina byahabwaga; agenda ahindagurika, rimwe ngo biri mu nzira y’iterambere, ngo biharanira kwiteza imbere,ngo by’ubukungu buciriritse n’andi.

Imvugo “Isi y’epfo” rero yaje kwaduka ndetse igaragara nk’itagize icyo itwaye ibyo bihugu mu gihe yakoreshwa hatagamije kubigenera uko bigomba kubaho, kuyoborwa no kwitwara.

Hari ariko bamwe mu bayobora ibihugu byo mu isi y’epfo bagaragaje ko badakunda iyi nyito kuko yifashishwa nk’uburyo bushya bwo gushaka guha amabwiriza y’imiyoborere ibihugu bikennye, no kugena ababiyobora bitanyuze mu mahitamo y’abenegihugu ubwabo.

 

 

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