Mudasobwa imwe ku mwana burya zari inzozi!

Umwanditsi Mukuru
Yanditswe na Umwanditsi Mukuru

Mu mwaka wa 2007 Perezida Kagame yakiriye muri Village urugwiro Prof. Nicholas Negroponte washinze ndetse wanayoboraga umuryango One laptop per child (OLPC). Mu biganiro bagiranye havuye mo umushinga wa mudasobwa imwe kuri buri mwana w’umunyarwanda. Umushinga watangiye gushyirwa mu bikorwa muri Kamena 2028.

Uyu ni umushinga abenshi mu basomyi bacu bumvise barikanga kuko ibyawo ntibikigarukwaho cyane haba muri gahunda z’uburezi haba no mu itangazamakuru. Ubu gahunda ya mudasobwa yavuye ku mwana ijya ku mwarimu. Ndetse ikigezweho ni uko buri mwarimu agomba kuba afite mudasobwa mu mwaka utaha wa 2025.

Mu isesengura rya Makuruki.rw hari ingingo 8 zigaragaza neza ko gahunda ya Mudasobwa ku mwana itageze ku ntego zayo. Ndetse zatumye tuvuga ko ibyo u Rwanda rwari ruyitezemo byabaye inzozi. Inzozi igihugu kitabashije gukabya.

1. Igiciro gihanitse cya mudasobwa

Mu itangira ry’iyi gahunda, hagamijwe kureshya u Rwanda umuryango One Laptop Per child (OLPC) wabanje guha u Rwanda mudasobwa 10.000. Izi zari izo kugeragerezaho ndetse no gutangiriraho.

Nyuma y’izi mudasobwa 10.000 hari amakuru yemeza ko u Rwanda rwahise rugura Mudasobwa 100,000 mu mwaka wa 2009.

Ikiguzi cya mudasobwa imwe ya XO yagurwaga $ 200. Bivuze ko u Rwanda rwari rwashoye $ 20,000,000 mu kugura izi mudasobwa z’icyiciro cya mbere. Aya ni amafaranga menshi cyane ugendeye ku bukungu bw’u Rwanda rwo mu 2008/2009 kuko ingengo y’imari yari mu rwego rw’uburezi mu 2008 yari Miliyoni 109$. Bivuze ko Miliyoni 20$ zaguzwe mudasobwa zari 18% by’ingengo y’imari yose yari mu burezi.

Byasaga nko kwizirika umukanda kugira ngo abana b’u Rwanda babone ikoranabuhanga rigezweho ndetse igihugu cyubakire ubukungu ku baturage bajijutse. Mbibutse ko muri iyo myaka, 70% by’ingengo y’imari byavaga mu nkunga, inguzanyo n’imfashanyo.

Ibi biciro bihanitse bya Mudasobwa byatumye uwari Minisitiri w’uburezi mu 2009 Theoneste Mutsindashyaka atekereza kuba ababyeyi bajya bishyurira abana 50% by’ikiguzi cya Mudasobwa na Leta ikishyura 50% gusa ibi nabyo ntibyakozwe.

2. Amashanyarazi yari macye

Imibare yo mu mwaka wa 2008 ubwo iyi gahunda yatangiraga igaragaza ko ibigo by’amashuri abanza 94% icyo gihe nta muriro w’amashanyarazi byari bifite. Bivuze ko mu bigo 100 nibura ibigo 6 nibyo byashoboraga kubona umuriro w’amashanyarazi. Mu miterere y’inyandiko muzi “Concept note” y’uyu mushinga byari biteganijwe ko umwana yagombaga guhabwa mudasobwa akajya ayitahana. Birashoboka cyane ko haba ku ishuri aho umwana yiga, mudasobwa yahageze ikabura amashanyarazi ndetse no mu rugo yahagera igasanga nta mashanyarazi bityo ntiyigere ikora.

Mu mwaka wa 2011 Nkubito Bakuramutsa wari ukuriye iyi gahunda muri MINEDUC yabwiye itangazamakuru ko hariho gahunda yo gushaka uko icyitwaga EWSA cyagombaga kugeza amashanyarazi arimo n’ay’imirasire y’izuba ku bigo by’amashuri. Gusa iyi ni gahunda yari itekerejwe mudasobwa zaramaze gutangwa.

3. Imiterere ya Mudasobwa zaguzwe

Mu 2007 ikiganiro Prof Romain Murenzi wari Minisitiri w’uburezi yahaye abanyamakuru ubwo uyu mushinga wari ukiri mu bitekerezo, yagaragaje ko u Rwanda rwifuzaga ko izi mudasobwa zizafasha abanyarwanda kwaguka mu mitekerereze. Bakamenya imigirire y’ahandi hirya no hino ku isi. Bityo bagasobanukirwa aho isi igeze. byashimangirwaga kandi ko izi mudasobwa zizakoreshwa mu bushakashatsi.

Imiterere ya mudasobwa zatanzwe muri iyi gahunda ubwayo ntituma zigira ubushobozi bwo gukora ibyo zari zitezwe ho. Aho zagaragaye wasangaga abana bafite mo imikino n’uturirimbo. Ibi ariko biranatugeza ku ngingo ya 4 igaruka kuri interineti mu gihugu.

4. Kutagira interineti 

Benshi bibaza uburyo izi mudasobwa zari zigiye gukoreshwa mu bushakashatsi nyamara nta interineti. U Rwanda rubashije kugira ibice byinshi bigerwa ho interineti mu myaka nibura 7 ishize ya NST 1. Byari muri gahunda Igihugu cyahaye umurongo bityo umuyoboro mugari wa interineti ushobora gukwirakwira mu gihugu.

Izi mudasobwa zatanzwe nta interneti zari zifite byatumye benshi mu bana bazihawe n’abarimu babo bazihindura izo gukiniraho imikino no kumva indirimbo.

5. Imicungire y’uyu mutungo

Mu nyandiko muzi “Concept note” ya Gahunda ya mudasobwa imwe ku mwana, byanditswe ko iyi mudasobwa yagombaga guhabwa abana bari hagati y’imyaka 9 na 12 bose bari mu gihugu. Mu gihe cy’imyaka 5. Bakajya bazitahana, bakazigendana, bakabana nazo.

Nyuma y’iminsi micye abana batangiye kuzitahana bakagaruka ku ishuri bavuga ko bazibwe. Ibi byashoboka ko hari abazibwaga koko cyangwa se bamwe bakaziyibisha. Ibi byateye abayobozi b’ibigo by’amashuri amakenga. Batangira kwibaza ibisobanuro bazatanga mu gihe bazaba babajijwe irengero rya mudasobwa bakiriye ku bigo by’amashuri. Bamwe muri ba Diregiteri bahise bajya mu gakiriro babajisha utubati bagura n’ingufuri zikomeye. Bashyira mo izi mudasobwa barafunga.

Obadia Biraro akiri umugenzuzi mukuru w’imari ya Leta mu 2015 yabwiye abadepite ko Igihugu cyahombeye bikomeye muri iyi gahunda kuko yari yarasanze mu bigo 20 gusa yasuye, mudasobwa 1,425 zifite agaciro ka Miliyoni 203 z’amafaranga y’u Rwanda zibitse mu tubati, ibitagangurirwa byarazubatse ho.

Reka bazibike kure kandi n’abajura bazo ntibari bazoroheye. Mu 2018 honyine REB yatangaje ko hibwe mudasobwa 2,667.

6. Abarimu ntibateguwe 

Mu gutangiza iyi gahunda habaye ho gushaka abarimu bahugurwa ku ikoreshwa rya mudasobwa. Aba ugasanga ni umwe cyangwa babiri mu kigo cy’amashuri. Aba barimu bahabwaga ubumenyi bw’ibanze kuri mudasobwa bagasabwa kubugeza ku bandi. Mudasobwa zagiye kugera ku bigo by’amashuri hari bamwe muri bo batacyibuka no kuzifungura. Birumvikana kandi kuko izaje sizo bari barigiyeho.

Nta mwanya wihariye wo kwigisha bagenzi babo watanzwe kuko n’andi masomo batangaga yarakomeje. Abarimu mu mashuri abanza bisanze bagomba gufasha abanyeshuri kumenya mudasobwa nyamara nabo ntacyo bari bayiziho. Aba barimu kandi hari ubwo bisangaga hari mudasobwa zikeneye gushyirwa mo porogramu. Ibi na wa mwarimu umwe wahuguwe ntabyo yabaga azi. Abanyeshuri bisanze bafite ibikoresho bidafite umwigisha ndetse bimwe na bimwe bidafite ikirimo. Bisa nk’isahane itariho ibiryo ariko iteguye ku meza.

7. Iteganyabikorwa ritanoze muri MINEDUC 

Mu mwaka wa 2018 hari hashize imyaka 10 iyi gahunda itangiye. Uyu niwo mwaka REB yatangaje ko yari iri gutegura integanyanyigisho “Curriculum” irimo isomo rya Mudasobwa. Yavugaga ko hari haratanzwe mudasobwa 274,073 mu gihugu hose ndetse ngo hari izindi 1,578 zari muri REB zitaragezwa mu bigo by’amashuri.

Mu mwaka 10 yari ishize umwana wahawe mudasobwa ziza bwa mbere yari ari kurangiza Kaminuza. Bisobanuye ko atigeze yiga iryo somo n’ubwo rwose yabonye mudasobwa. Aha niho hahita hagaragara iteganyabikorwa ritakozwe ku gihe mu gihe REB yatangiraga gutanga izi mudasobwa. Mu itangira ry’umushinga hagombaga kuba ho n’uburyo bwo guteganya uko abana bazahita batangira kwigishwa aya masomo.

 

8. Imiterere y’umuryango nyarwanda

Mu miterere y’umuryango nyarwanda abana iyo bavuye ku ishuri ndetse hamwe na hamwe mbere yo kujya ku ishuri, ni umwanya wo gukora uturimo two mu rugo. Ukuyemo abana bo mu ngo zifite aho usanga hari abakozi bo mu rugo, ariko mu muryango nyarwanda abana benshi bava ku ishuri bagabana imirimo irimo kwita ku matungo, isuku yo mu rugo, kuvoma amazi no gusenya inkwi,…. . Iyi mirimo kandi usanga ijyana n’imyumvire y’ababyeyi. Izi mudasobwa zakuruye ikibazo mu muryango nyarwanda aho umwana uyihugiyeho nyuma y’amasomo yafatwaga nk’udashaka kugira akarimo akora. Agafatwa nk’usuzugura ababyeyi. Hari n’ababyeyi bagaragazaga ko batizeye neza ibyo abana bareba muri izi mudasobwa, bakemeza ko umwana ashobora kuhigira imico mibi mu gihe abyihererana nta muntu mukuru wo kumuyobora.

Muri rusange gahunda ya Mudasobwa ku mwana zari inzozi nziza. Imibare y’ibarura ryo mu 2012 igaragaza ko abagombaga guhabwa izi mudasobwa bageraga muri Miliyoni hafi 2 bari mu kigero cy’imyaka 9 na 12. Ubu ni abafite hagati y’imyaka 25 na 28. Aba iyo bazihabwa mu myaka 5 ya mbere wenda bari kujya bazisigira barumuna babo nabo zikabagirira akamaro. Izatanzwe zose hamwe zishibora kuba zitarageze ku bihumbi 300. Iyi gahunda ntikivugwa ho cyane, ubu haravugwa Mudasobwa kuri mwarimu izarangirana na 2025. Yaba ari intangiro nziza ku rugendo rwo kugira abana bakurana ikoranabuhanga mu Rwanda. Ubwo byinshi mu byabangamiye gahunda ya mbere nk’amashanyarazi na Interineti ubu byafashe umurongo mwiza.

 

 

 

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